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As we transition to our new site, you'll still find some Stats NZ information here on this archive site.

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Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). ABS Forms Design Manual.Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

Bourque, L.B., & Fielder, E.P. (1995). How to Conduct Self-Administered and Mail Surveys. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bradburn, N., Sudman, & Wansick, B. (2004). Asking Questions: The Definitive Guide to Questionnaire Design - for Market Research, Political Polls, and Social and Health Questionnaires. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Christian, L.M., & Dillman, D.A. (2004). The influence of graphical and symbolic language manipulations on responses to self-administered questions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68, 57-80.

Couper, M.P., & Conrad, F. (2004). Spacing, position and order: Interpretative heuristics for visual features of survey questions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68, 368-393.

Dillman, D.A. (2000). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, (2nd Edition), John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York.

Dillman, D.A. (2007). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, (2nd Edition), 2007 Update, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York.

Dillman, D.A., Gertseva, A., & Mahon-Haft, T. (2005). Achieving usability in establishment surveys through the application of visual design principles. Journal of Official Statistics, 21,183-214.

Dillman, D.A., Redline, C.D., & Carley-Baxter, L.R. (1999). Influence of type of question on skip pattern compliance in self-administered questionnaires. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Survey Methods Section.

Dillman, D.A., Sinclair, M.D., & Clark, J.R. (1993). Effects of questionnaire length, respondent-friendly design, and a difficult question on response rates for occupant-addressed census mail surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 57, 289-304.

Fanning, E. (2005). Formatting a paper-based survey questionnaire: Best practices. Practical Research and Evaluation, 10(12).

Jenkins, C.R., & Dillman, D.A. (1995). The language of self-administered questionnaires as seen through the eyes of respondents. Volume 3, Statistical Policy Working Paper 23: New Directions in Statistical Methodology, 470-516. U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

Jenkins, C.R., & Dillman, D.A. (1997). Towards a theory of self-administered questionnaire design. In L. Lyberg, P. Biemer, M. Collins, E. De Leew, C. Dippo, N. Schwarz, and D. Trewin (eds.), Survey Measurement and Process Quality, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Chapter 7: pages 165 - 196.

Morrison, R.L., Stokes, S.L., Burton, J., Caruso, A., Edwards, K.K., Harley, D., Hough, R., Lazirko, B.A., Proudfoot, S. (2008). Economic Directorate Guidelines on Questionnaire Design. US Census Bureau Economic Directorate.

Priestly, W. (1991). Instructional typographies using desktop publishing techniques to produce effective learning and training materials. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 7, 153-163.

Redline, C.D., & Dillman, D.A. (1999). Retrieved 10 April, 2008, from, Symbolic, Numeric%20paper--with%20Cleo.pdf.

Smith, T.W. (1995). Little things matter: A sampler of how differences in questionnaire format can affect survey responses. In Proceedings of the American Statistical Organisation, Survey Research Methods section (pp. 1046-1051). Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.

Statistics Canada (2003). Survey Methods and Practices. Statistics Canada, Ottawa.

Statistics New Zealand (1995). A Guide to Good Survey Design. Statistics New Zealand, Wellington. Retrieved 10 April, 2008.

Statistics New Zealand (2002). Statistics New Zealand Style Manual. Statistics New Zealand, Wellington.

Stern, M.J., Dillman, D.A., & Smyth, J.D. (2007). Visual design, order effects and respondent characteristics in a self-administered survey. Survey Research Methods, 1, 121-138.

Subar, A. F., Zieglar, R.G., Thompson, F.E., Johnson, C.C., Weissfeld, J.L., Reding, D., Kavounis, K.H., & Hayes, R.B. (2001). Is short always better? Relative importance of questionnaire length and cognitive ease on response rates and data quality for two dietary questionnaires. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 404-409.

Wheildon, C. (2005). Type and Layout: Are You Communicating or Just Making Pretty Shapes? Hastings, Vic: Worsley Press.

Wright, P., & Barnard, P. (1978). Asking multiple questions about several items: The design of matrix structures on application forms. Applied Ergonomics, 9, 7-14.

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