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Longitudinal Business Database research

Research reports using the Longitudinal Business Database

The prototype Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) was created in December 2007, as a result of the two-year feasibility project, the Improved Business Understanding via Longitudinal Database Development (IBULDD).

The purpose of the IBULDD project was to test the feasibility of creating a longitudinal firm-level database covering the time period 1999–2005/06. Official statistics cannot be produced from IBULDD as it is still subject to change. The project was funded by Cross Departmental Research Pool (CDRP) money and finished in December 2007 with the successful creation of the Longitudinal Business Database.

Visit Longitudinal Business Database to view the data available in the LBD.

We've indicated after each link if the report hasn't come from Statistics NZ.

2017    2016    2015    2014    2013    2012    2011    2010    2009    2008    2007

2017

Productivity and the allocation of skills - Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.

2016 

A rough guide to New Zealand's Longitudinal Business Database (2nd edition) – Statistics NZ
This guide expands further on the data available in the LBD and touches on population coverage and overlaps between different data sources. This paper works in conjunction with the first edition published in 2009.

Productivity distribution and drivers of productivity growth in the construction industry– Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This study draws on firm-level data from the Longitudinal Business Database to examine productivity in the New Zealand construction industry

Competition in New Zealand industries: Measurement and evidence – Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.

Why firm size matters: Investigating the drivers of innovation and economic performance in New Zealand using the Business Operations Survey – Motu Economic and Public Policy, and Ministry of Economic Development.

2015

Business participation in government assistance programmes: 2013 update – joint report by Statistics NZ and Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.
Reports on the broad content of the 2013 GAP data update (July 2008 to June 2013).

Measuring the innovative activity of New Zealand firms – New Zealand Productivity Commission
This paper provides an overview of measures that capture both the inputs into and outputs from the innovative activities of New Zealand firms, using data on firm-level innovation from 2005 to 2013 available from the Longitudinal Business Database. The paper finds that the various measures tell different stories about the pattern of innovative activity across New Zealand firms.

Addressing the absence of hours information in linked employer-employee data – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper describes a method to approximate hours work in an attempt to improve the measurement of labour input and help researchers identify potentially unreliable subsets of job months when undergoing employment analyses in the Longitudinal Business Database. The paper also introduces a new definition for working proprietors.  

Using land for housing – final report – New Zealand Productivity Commission
Chapter three (Cities, growth, and land for housing) of this paper uses data from the Longitudinal Business Database to help discuss why cities grow, to analyse the drivers of demand for housing and land in cities, to critique the existing planning framework, and to analyse the impacts of restricted land supply.

The impact of R&D subsidy on innovation: A study of New Zealand firms – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper examines the impact of government assistance through R&D grants on innovation output for firms in New Zealand; has been published as The impact of R&D subsidy on innovation: Evidence from New Zealand firms in Economic of Innovation and New Technology 26(5).

2014

Trade over distance for New Zealand firms: Measurement and implications – New Zealand Productivity Commission
This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) to investigate the proximity of firms to their customers to assess the extent to which different industries trade their output over distance within New Zealand. The paper also tentatively assesses the correlation between tradability and firm productivity. 

Characteristics of New Zealand's commercial services exporters – New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
An update on previous research examining the characteristics of New Zealand's commercial services exporters using Statistics New Zealand's 2011 ITSS Census (2014).

Hiring new ideas: International migration and firm innovation in New Zealand – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper combines firm-level innovation data with worker characteristics to examine links between innovation and presence of new arrivals - both immigrants and returning New Zealanders - in the firm's workforce.

2013

Estimating firm-level effective tax rates and the user cost of capital in New Zealand – This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) to estimate firm-specific user costs of capital (UCCs) and associated EMTRs. These vary across firms, reflecting such factors as the extent and nature of taxable deductions (losses, depreciation), asset and ownership structures, and debt/equity financing.
 – Victoria University of Wellington

Export performance, invoice currency, and heterogeneous exchange rate pass-through – Using comprehensive, shipment-level merchandise trade data, this paper examines the extent to which New Zealand exporters maintain stable New Zealand dollar prices by passing on exchange rate changes to foreign customers.
 – The Treasury

Firm-level hiring difficulties: Persistence, business cycle and local labour market influences – This paper examines the correlates of reported hiring difficulties at the firm level using linked employer-employee and panel survey data over 2005–2011, focusing on the relative influence of firm-level characteristics, persistence, the business cycle, and local labour market liquidity.
 – Motu Economic and Public Policy

The incidence and persistence of cyclical job loss in New Zealand – This paper documents the extent and composition of employment change between 2000 and 2011, focusing particularly on the 2008–2010 period, when the labour market impacts of the global financial crisis were strongest.
 – Motu Economic and Public Policy

The Impact of wage subsidies on jobseekers’ outcomes and firm employment – This paper examines the impact of wage subsidies on assisted jobseekers and on the firms that employ them, using propensity matching methods.
– Motu Economic and Public Policy

2012

pdf icon. A good worker is hard to find: Skills shortages in New Zealand firms (PDF, 75 pages, 1.1mb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This paper examines vacancies that were hard to fill because the applicants lacked the necessary skills, qualification, or experience – which is defined as skill-related reasons. We also contrast these with vacancies that were hard to fill for non-skill-related reasons.

pdf icon. Business strategy and skills in New Zealand (PDF, 73 pages, 993kb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This paper summarises the results from two projects that investigated skills in New Zealand businesses.

Cyclical labour market adjustment in New Zealand: The response of firms to the global financial crisis and its implications for workers – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper examines the dynamics of employment adjustment in New Zealand, focusing on the response of firms to the 2008/09 global financial crisis. We use data from Statistics NZ’s prototype LBD to examine firms’ employment responses to output shocks before and after the crisis, and to investigate variations in job and worker flows.

Performance pay systems and the gender wage gap – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper examines the relationship between performance pay systems and wages, paying particular attention to gender differences in outcomes.

To make or buy (skills): An analysis of training decisions using microdata – Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (Labour information)
This paper examines the impact of skill shortages on the supply of training within New Zealand firms.

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2011

Any port in a storm? The impact of new port infrastructure on New Zealand exporter behaviour – Reserve Bank of New Zealand
This paper investigates the impact of port infrastructure on exporter behaviour, focusing on the opening of Metroport, a new inland port in Auckland.

Foreign acquisition and the performance of New Zealand firms – The Treasury
This paper examines the firm-level determinants of foreign acquisitions of New Zealand companies, and the consequences for both the purchased firms and the workers within those firms.

Immigration and innovation – Institute for the Study of Labor
This paper combines firm-level innovation data with area-level Census data to examine the relationship between local workforce characteristics, especially the presence of immigrants and local skills, and the likelihood of innovation by firms.

Keeping it together: Tracking firms in New Zealand's Longitudinal Business Database – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Having good longitudinal identifiers is important in empirical microeconomics, since researchers often need to be able to observe the same unit over time to make causal inferences. However, firm identifiers in Statistics New Zealand’s Longitudinal Business Database can be “broken” by, among other things, changes in the legal status of the firm. This paper proposes a simple method for repairing broken firm identifiers, making use of existing plant migration data.

Patterns of business location in Auckland – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper investigates the spatial determinants of industrial location and productivity variation within the Auckland Urban Area. 

Productivity and local workforce composition – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This chapter examines the link between firm productivity and the population composition of the areas in which firms operate.

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2010

Agglomeration elasticities and firm heterogeneity – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper estimates the relationship between agglomeration and multi factor productivity at the one digit industry level and by region using longitudinal firm level data for New Zealand.

Business participation in Government assistance programmes – joint paper between Statistics NZ and the Ministry of Economic Development
Descriptive statistics on the businesses that participate in different types of government assistance programmes, including their size, industry, and characteristics.

Cutting the hedge: Exporters' dynamic currency hedging behaviour – ScienceDirect
This paper uses a dataset that includes all New Zealand merchandise export transactions to analyse exporters' dynamic currency hedging behavior.

Exporting and performance: Market entry, expansion and destination characteristics – Reserve Bank of New Zealand
This paper examines the effect of export market entry on New Zealand firm performance.

HR practices and New Zealand firm performance: What matters and who does it? – Taylor and Francis Online
This paper examines the impact of human resource practices, especially those considered as parts of high performance work systems, on firm performance.

pdf icon. Impact of emissions pricing on New Zealand manufacturing: A short-run analysis (PDF, 111 pages, 1.2mb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This study bridges existing long run, economy wide models and individual firm case studies by exploring the emissions intensity and short-run implications of emissions pricing for 51 manufacturing industry groups. 

pdf icon. NZTE output class 1 evaluation (August 2009) (PDF, 125 pages, 797kb) – Ministry of Economic Development
An evaluation of the effectiveness of the suite of training and advisory programmes provided by New Zealand Trade and Enterprise.

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2009 

A rough guide to New Zealand’s Longitudinal Business Database – Research Unit for Statistical and Empirical Analysis in Social Sciences
This paper describes the elements of the Longitudinal Business Database, access protocols for researchers, and potential future developments in the linking and availability of business data in New Zealand.

Comparative analysis of enterprise data (CAED) conference 2009:

Papers presented at this conference included:

  • Export market choice for New Zealand firms
  • The "suite" smell of success: Complementary personnel practices and firm performance

pdf icon. Competition in New Zealand: An analysis using micro data (PDF, 38 pages, 303kb) – New Zealand Association of Economists
This paper uses a rich source of information, the prototype Longitudinal Business Database, to examine the nature and extent of competition in New Zealand.

pdf icon. Exporting and performance: The impact of destination characteristics on learning effects (PDF, 36 pages, 468kb) – Reserve Bank of New Zealand
This paper examines the effect of export market entry on firm performance, including productivity.

pdf icon. Job mobility and wage dynamics (PDF, 38 pages, 297kb) – New Zealand Association of Economists
This paper examines the contribution of workers’ job mobility to their wage dynamics. 

Multi-product exporters and product turnover behaviour of New Zealand exporters – The Treasury
Using a unique dataset that covers all exporting firms in New Zealand from 1996 to 2007, this paper analyses the patterns of their product mix, how it changes over time and how this relates to firm characteristics.

New Zealand Association of Economists (NZAE) Conference 2009
Find the full programme of presentations.  

pdf icon. Productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment in New Zealand: Firm level evidence (PDF, 23 pages, 155kb) – New Zealand Association of Economists
This paper seeks to answer two questions: Whether FDI led productivity spillovers exist in NZ manufacturing, and, whether such spillovers are conditional on the absorptive capacity of domestic firms.

pdf icon. The evolution of export unit values: Some stylised facts (PDF, 28 pages, 303kb) – New Zealand Association of Economists
Using detailed Customs data, we examine changes in unit values for merchandise trade.

The need for speed: Impacts of internet connectivity on firm productivity – Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
This paper uses a large New Zealand micro-survey of firms linked to unit record firm financial data to determine the impact that differing types of internet access have on firm productivity.

The "suite" smell of success: Complementary personnel practices and firm performance – Reserve Bank of New Zealand
This paper finds that suites of complementary HRM-related practices impact positively on firm productivity and wages; effects on employee turnover depend on the practices considered.

Whatever next? Export market choices of New Zealand firms – Reserve Bank of New Zealand
This paper examines product and market entry choices of New Zealand exporters, using an enterprise level dataset which links firm performance measures with detailed data on merchandise trade.

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2008

pdf icon. A comparison of qualitative and quantitative firm performance measures (PDF, 70 pages, 1.8mb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This paper considers both absolute and relative performance, reported in the Business Operations Survey, with alternative measures taken from administrative sources, brought together under the Improved Business Understanding via Longitudinal Database Development (IBULDD) project in the prototype Longitudinal Business Database.

Developing the prototype Longitudinal Business Database 
Two conference papers about how Statistics New Zealand developed the prototype Longitudinal Business Database.

pdf icon. Do exporters cut the hedge? Who hedges and why? (PDF, 68 pages, 1.6mb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This paper uses data derived from the Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) to analyse the currency denomination and hedging behaviour of New Zealand merchandise exporters.

pdf icon. Firm level patterns in merchandise trade (PDF, 76 pages, 1.9mb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This paper examines patterns of merchandise exporting at both the firm level (1996-2005) and the product level (1988-2005).

pdf icon. Labour productivity in Auckland firms (PDF, 66 pages, 775kb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This paper examines labour productivity in Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city, using microdata from Statistics New Zealand’s Prototype Longitudinal Business Database. 

pdf icon. Over the hedge? Exporters' optimal and selective hedging choices (PDF, 41 pages, 408kb) – Reserve Bank of New Zealand
How do exporting firms manage currency exposures? This paper examines this issue at the firm level using comprehensive data from the prototype Longitudinal Business Database recently developed by Statistics New Zealand.

pdf icon. Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall: Firm dynamics, market structure and performance (PDF, 44 pages, 1.5mb) – Ministry of Economic Development
This paper investigates the microeconomic dynamics of the New Zealand economy using a powerful new Statistics NZ-held dataset.

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2007

Potential outputs from the Longitudinal Business Database
This paper presents a selection of some of the outputs that can be produced using the Longitudinal Business Database. These outputs were produced both as experimental outputs in their own right and as tests of the fitness for use of  LBD data.

Science, technology and innovation indicators in a changing world – OECD
See in particular chapter 9, How innovative are New Zealand firms?

The performance of NZ exporters: Some firm-level evidence 
Presentation by Richard Fabling, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, to Motu Public Policy Seminar. 

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