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Appendix 1

Table 1 summarises findings for the topics and variables collected by the 2013 Census. For te reo and other ‘high importance’ topics, census needs to continue to provide breakdowns for Māori populations: by ethnicity, descent, or iwi, and by geographic area.

Table 1
Summary of requirements to provide census information for and about Māori

 2013 Census variables
Must have  Evidence of high importance   Limited or no evidence to date
Population structure Age

 Marital status
Number of children born alive

Geography  Usual residence  

Dwelling address
Usual residence five years ago
Years at usual residence

Ethnicity and culture Ethnicity
Māori descent
Iwi affiliation
Language spoken (te reo Māori)
  Religious affiliation
Years since arrival in New Zealand
Birthplace (country of birth)
Education and training    Highest qualification
Study participation
Post-school qualification
Highest secondary school qualification
Income   Total personal income Sources of income
Work   Work and labour force status
Status in employment
Hours worked in employment
Workplace address
Sector of ownership
Unpaid activities
 Health   Cigarette smoking behaviour Disability
Transport      Main means of travel to work
Number of motor vehicles  
Families and households   Household composition
Family type  
Extended family type 
Housing and telecom-munications   Number of bedrooms Occupied dwelling type
Weekly rent paid
Sector of landlord
Tenure of household
Tenure holder (ownership)
Number of rooms
Access to telecommunications
Fuel type used to heat dwelling 


Table 2 lists what we were told about what customers (mainly government agencies) require of census information about Māori. Resources and consultations include: Census Information Needs, Data Uses and Outputs (CINDUO) stocktake, 2013 Census Data Users Consultation, 2013 Population Statistics Consultation.

Table 2
How census information is used by central and local government 

Agency (alphabetical)  Māori information priorities  Key census variables 
Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment  Use focuses on Tū Mai Iwi tool, which provides a customised profile of iwi labour market indicators and allows comparison between iwi, Māori, and the general population.
The tool adds value to iwi decision-making in policy, business, and career planning.
It helps with planning by identifying growth skills, and informing decision-making about investing in the workforce.  
Iwi affiliation
Māori ethnicity
Highest qualifications
Income-related variables
Hours worked in employment per week
Workplace address
Ministry of Education 

Uses focus on:

  • allocating funds and resources for current schools and tertiary provision, and new schools and tertiary provision based on forecasting school rolls and tertiary students
  • language spoken used by Regional Operations to determine the need for language provision of Māori in schools
  • ‘education’ topic variables used to measure how well policies are affecting education sector performance and Māori educational success (Ka Hikitia)
  • investment decisions on new school lands using household information.  
Māori ethnicity
Iwi affiliation
Language spoken

Specific age groups, most important is age at transitions (eg school to tertiary).
Ministry of Health

Uses focus on:

  • allocating funding across district health boards (DHB) and primary health organisations (PHO). Calculating Māori ethnicity participation in health schemes
  • targeting service delivery for Māori effectively by measuring rates of disease, hospital bed monitoring, discharge rates by DHB, PHO counts
  • health planning (eg screening) and local service delivery; eg Bay of Plenty & Northland Māori health plans and initiatives
  • statutory and other analytical/performance reporting, including National Health Board evaluation of DHB performance, hospital events analysis, discharge rates, cancer survival rates, and other reports.
Māori ethnicity
Māori descent

Single year of age/sex breakdowns for certain groups
DHB level for funding, ethnic projections further into future 
Ministry of Justice 

Uses focus on Treaty obligations.

  • Office of Treaty Settlements – counts of iwi from census for Treaty settlement negotiations.
  • Waitangi Tribunal – Ko Aotearoa Tēnei: A Report into Claims Concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity.

The Post-Treaty Settlement Unit set up recently within Ministry of Justice is developing thinking around information needs for and about Māori.  

Iwi affiliation
Language spoken 
Ministry of Social Development 

Uses focus on:

  • forecasting uptake and fiscal impact of many forms of financial assistance and service provision
  • needs assessment of Māori ethnicity used to target service provision
  • evaluation and performance monitoring, reporting, briefings
  • work and income – ethnicity used to help decide appropriate locations for interagency collaborative initiatives; eg youth programmes
  • Family and Community Services – profiling populations for local decision-making on planning and resource allocation.  
Māori ethnicity
Income and work topic 
Te Māngai Pāho (Māori Broadcasting Funding Agency) 

Uses focus on:

  • revitalising te reo Māori and Māori culture
  • funding for Māori language programmes, Māori culture programmes and music, for broadcast via television, radio, and other platforms.  
Māori ethnicity
Iwi affiliation
Language spoken 
Te Puni Kōkiri
(Ministry of Māori Development) 

Uses focus on:

  • informing and targeting policy (across government) that affects Māori
  • service planning (across government) through Whānau Ora – an interagency approach to providing whānau-centered health and social services
  • interest in Māori-specific internal flows, diaspora, and inter-ethnicity marriages. 
Māori ethnicity
Māori descent
Iwi affiliation
Language spoken
Household and family information (incl. across household)
age/sex breakdowns at area unit (or meshblock), or grouped into iwi rohe
ability to break iwi down by inside rohe and outside rohe  
Te Taura Whiri i Te Reo Māori (Māori Language Commission) 

Uses focus on:

  • monitoring the vitality of te reo Māori
  • distributing funding for te reo community initiatives at family and household level
  • supporting local initiatives

The cabinet paper signed off in May 2014 clarifies Te Taura Whiri’s role and the information needed to monitor the health of te reo Māori.  

Language spoken
Māori ethnicity
Iwi affiliation
Household and family information
age/sex breakdowns at area unit (or meshblock)
Other govt agencies, including:
Office of Ethnic Affairs,
Ministry of Women, and
Ministry of Pacific Affairs 

Uses include:

  • Ministry of Pacific Affairs uses Māori info as comparison with Pacific people
  • Ministry of Women uses lifetime income measure, economic returns to skills
  • Reports and research projects on Māori participation in industry training and the Modern Apprenticeship programme.  
Māori ethnicity 
Policy-related academic research

Public health policy examples:

  • healthy life expectancy
  • household crowding and infectious disease
  • NZ Census Mortality Study; Cancer Register.

Health, social well-being and development, housing, households, and families are all examples. The areas of interest for Māori were established in He Arotahi Tatauranga (2014). 

Health-related information needs:
Māori ethnicity
Number of bedrooms by household composition  
Māori Economic Development  Specific use to measure the ‘human capital’ element of business performance.  Māori descent/iwi affiliation
Workforce participation
Participation in study
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