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Recommendations from consulting on the draft iwi statistical standard

Purpose and summary

Purpose

Recommendations from consulting on the draft iwi statistical standard summarises submission feedback on the draft iwi statistical standard and provides recommendations for finalising the standard.

Summary of the standard’s development

In collaboration with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members, Stats NZ has reviewed the iwi statistical standard. The standard provides the requirements and guidelines for how to gather, organise, and report iwi and iwi-related groups’ information and statistics.

After a carefully considered process in 2016, which included consultation with iwi, Māori, government agencies, and others, we worked with the advisory group to develop a draft iwi statistical standard.

In April 2017, we published the draft iwi statistical and invited feedback from people who use iwi data and statistics.

Iwi, Māori, government agencies, and others provided feedback on the draft standard. The submission feedback shows:

  • people are positive and supportive of the draft iwi statistical standard
  • there is general support for the concept and definition of iwi
  • the conditions for inclusion are recognised as more inclusive than the previous classification criteria
  • minor amendments are required to improve clarity in some sections of the standard
  • geographical terms, such as ‘rohe’, can be confusing
  • access to iwi information is important.

After discussing the submission feedback, Stats NZ and the advisory group recommend finalising the standard with minimal change to the draft standard consulted on. The group also provided recommendations for future work, including:

  • developing a technical document to accompany the standard
  • continuing to explore approaches for increasing access to iwi and Māori information
  • partnering with Māori to identify options for collecting and reporting information on hapū, marae, and non-kinship Māori groupings.

We expect the final standard will be published on the Stats NZ website in September 2017.

Acknowledgement

We thank everyone who provided feedback on the draft iwi statistical standard.

Introduction to the standard

The iwi statistical standard was created in 1994, following the development of an iwi classification we used in the 1991 Census. The standard guides how to collect, organise, and report iwi information, and is used to produce iwi statistics.

More than 20 years after its development, Stats NZ and an advisory group of Māori and government agency members reviewed the iwi statistical standard for the first time. The review's purpose was to explore the need for changes to the standard to ensure it continues to meet the needs of those using the standard and iwi information.

Reviewing the iwi statistical standard

To review the iwi standard, we worked with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members, and carried out background research and consultation.

The research and consultation involved reviewing literature on Māori groupings (Stats NZ, 2016a) and interviewing key government agencies to understand their engagement with Māori (Stats NZ, 2015). We also sought feedback from iwi, Māori, government agencies, researchers, and the public on the descriptions of iwi (concept and definition), conditions for inclusion in the classification, classification (list), and guidelines used within the iwi standard (Stats NZ, 2016b). This feedback helped Stats NZ and the advisory group develop written recommendations for revising the standard (Stats NZ, 2016c).

In collaboration with the advisory group, we used the recommendations to develop a draft iwi statistical standard. Key changes to the standard included replacing the iwi classification criteria with ‘conditions for inclusion’ to better reflect contemporary needs for and about Māori. The draft standard also included an updated purpose, new concept and definition, and new approaches for reporting iwi information (Stats NZ, 2017).

See Summary of the iwi statistical standard review for more information on the review and key changes to the standard.

Consultation process

In April 2017, we published the draft iwi statistical standard and invited feedback from people who use iwi data and statistics. To do this we:

  • sent 400 targeted emails to iwi, Māori, government agencies, researchers, councils, territorial authorities, district health boards, private businesses, and others who had expressed interest in the standard
  • advertised the draft standard and submission process on Stats NZ’s website, in newsletters, and through social media channels
  • sent a media release in te reo and English to 76 media organisations and stakeholders
  • used targeted phone calls to notify iwi and Māori groups of the key changes.

We encouraged people interested in providing feedback to complete an online or PDF submission form (see Appendix 1 for submission questions). Some stakeholders also provided feedback verbally or by email.

Feedback from consultation

We received 20 written and 11 verbal submissions on the draft iwi statistical standard from iwi, Māori, government agencies, researchers, councils, district health boards, and the public. This section summarises the submission feedback, grouped to reflect the components of the standard and other emerging themes. A selection of quotes illustrates submitters’ feedback.

Satisfaction with the draft standard

Overall, people were positive about the new direction of the standard. Submission feedback reinforced the notion that the changes reflected in the draft iwi statistical standard are long overdue.

“The draft standard appears more in line with the dynamics of Māori social structure than the current / previous standard.”

“Our board and iwi members are appreciative that Stats NZ is finally taking a stance that we hope will go some way to remove the prejudice and discrimination caused by the failure to include our iwi-identity, in particular the national census for a start.”

“Despite [being] long overdue, we congratulate Stats NZ for making this change in policy to recognise the legitimate interests of the Crown's Treaty partner.”

Concept and definition

The definition of iwi in the previous standard was criticised for failing to capture the dynamic and changing nature of iwi (Stats NZ, 2016b). Consequently, the draft iwi statistical standard included a new concept and definition (see Appendix 2).

Most people agreed with the concept and definition presented in the draft standard and provided positive feedback. However, a minority of submitters offered suggestions for improvement. One submitter discussed including mana whenua in the definition; another suggested including traditional takiwā, and evidence of the exercise of rangatiratanga and kaitiakitanga. A third submitter proposed that a broad statistical definition of whānau is appropriate within the context of whakapapa-based groupings.

“We support the proposed definitions.”

“AGREE: The concept that an iwi or Māori tribe is generally made up of several hapū that are all descended from a common ancestor and [that] hapū are clusters of whānau, which is usually an extended family grouping consisting of children, parents often grandparents and other close kin.”

“We consider for iwi the definition ought to include a common tupuna, hapū, traditional takiwā, and evidence of the exercise of rangatiratanga and kaitiakitanga thereto.”

These comments provide support for using the concept and definition presented in the draft standard. While there were suggestions for change, these reflected a minority of submitters’ views so need to be considered and balanced against the positive feedback received.

Inclusion conditions

Feedback from earlier stages of the review reported ongoing dissatisfaction with the previous classification criteria (Stats NZ, 2016b). As a result, a key focus of the review was to consider alternative approaches for including groups in the iwi classification.

Submission feedback recognised the new classification conditions (see Appendix 2), which replace the previous classification criteria, as being more inclusive. People were supportive of the changes. Some submitters offered suggestions for improving the inclusion conditions. These included collecting ‘marae’ to make it easier to identity a person’s hapū or iwi, and using recognised iwi lists from the Office of Treaty Settlements and councils to help identify iwi.

“We support the conditions for inclusion as not being tested by other political groups.”

“That word is pretty clear ‘INCLUSION’.”

“Would identifying individual marae make it easier to locate a person's status for membership to hapū and, or, iwi.”

“[We] question the use of Te Kāhui Māngai, Tūhono, and the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 as the only sources used.”

“The Waitangi Tribunal is a good resource; it records how certain iwi in our history have been ignored by the Crown.”

These comments provide general support for the new inclusion conditions, but a minority of submitters also offered suggestions for change.

The suggestion to include examples of other recognised iwi lists in the standard (eg iwi lists from the Office of Treaty Settlements and councils) is likely to be unnecessary. This is because the draft standard already uses the wording ‘such as’ to precede the recognised lists, signifying these lists are examples only.

The suggestion to include collecting marae is beyond the scope of the standard. During earlier stages of the review, the advisory group considered this option to help identity a person’s iwi or hapū, but discounted it because (Stats NZ, 2016c):

  • there is insufficient evidence to show marae information will make it easier to identity iwi
  • marae might be better suited to collection by Māori, rather than by a government agency
  • if collected, people might expect marae information to be reported, but the quality of the information and confidentiality thresholds might prevent this.

Recommendations resulting from consultation in 2016 (Stats NZ, 2016c) also make it clear that further work is required before we consider collecting marae information. As part of future work, Stats NZ could investigate the feasibility and options for collecting this information, or other iwi or Māori groups might undertake this piece of work.

Collecting, classifying, and reporting iwi information

Feedback provided on collecting, classifying, and reporting iwi information identified areas where we need further clarity. For example, a submitter asked for a term to be included in the glossary. Another suggested the standard requires further guidance about applying it in different administrative contexts.

“Under collect information on iwi region ‘help place an iwi in the correct category’ – what category is referred to here?”

“More guidance on application in different administrative contexts is required.”

These comments show the draft iwi statistical standard requires minor amendments to improve clarity. They also indicate some people require information that is more technical or more specific to their needs than the standard currently provides.

We published a Summary of the iwi statistical standard for people who require less-technical information than is provided in the standard, but it may also be worth developing a document for people who require information that is more technical. Such a document could provide more guidance on applying the standard in different administrative contexts, as well as other information to support implementing the standard.

Collecting region (rohe)

The draft standard states we collect region (rohe) information, together with iwi, to help classify iwi with names common to more than one region.

The references to ‘region (rohe)’ in the standard led some submitters to raise concerns. They were concerned that using terms such as ‘district’ and ‘rohe’ lead to confusion. The submitters also highlighted that iwi boundaries are not mutually exclusive and often overlap.

“We have confusion about geospatial boundaries and what it means for how we collect data on the tangata whenua in our district. In our district, there are three iwi in the rohe – and please note that just the use of the words ‘district’ and ‘rohe’ in that sentence gives rise to confusion about district boundaries versus rohe boundaries.”

“We understand that iwi boundaries are a difficult sector as neighbouring iwi will almost certainly overlap.”

These comments reflect concerns previously raised by the review. Despite these concerns, the review recommended continuing to ask for region alongside iwi in the draft standard because this information is important for classifying some iwi responses. As such, the recommendation to collect region or rohe with iwi is likely to remain in the final standard.

Access to information

Feedback received from submissions shows access to information is important. People increasingly want access to more-detailed information, particularly iwi information for economic and social well-being indicators. People also want access to information on hapū, marae, and non-kinship groups (such as community marae).

Submitters suggested that one way to increase access to iwi and Māori information is to make more available through Stats NZ’s online tools.

“Although census iwi profiles are useful with infographics etc. we would like more detailed information.”

“It would be extremely useful to include hapū [and] marae in the census along with housing, employment, education, and health statistics.”

“More iwi data needs to be made available through [Stats NZ’s] online tools.”

Information access emerged as strong theme throughout the review. Iwi and Māori groups want access to more-detailed information to help strategise, plan, and make evidence-based decisions to improve the health and well-being of their people.

The iwi standard clearly states its focus is on iwi and iwi-related groups. While we recognise there is a need for information on hapū, marae, and non-kinship Māori groups, this information is beyond the scope of the standard. However, to support increased access to information groups can request their ‘response list report’ from Stats NZ. A response list report provides the number of written responses to the iwi question that are whakapapa-based. Access to this may involve a cost.

To increase access to iwi information, Stats NZ has initiatives underway. For example, we have an early version of our new website that provides people with new ways to access iwi and Māori information and statistics. The website brings together information on topics such as te reo, education, and social well-being.

The standard does not directly influence access to information, but future work should explore ways to free up access to data. For example, Stats NZ could collaborate with Māori to identify options for collecting and reporting information on hapū, marae, and non-kinship Māori groups.

Other comments

This section reflects submissions we were unable to classify elsewhere. Most comments in this section are not within the immediate scope of the standard, but are important to consider within the wider context of collecting iwi information and working with Māori.

Narratives about groups’ challenges

The challenges encountered by some groups seeking to be included in the iwi classification, and to be recognised in statistics, were evident in submission feedback.

“[Our iwi] is not and has never been available as an option to identify [with] via this statistical gathering process.”

This feedback highlights the difficulties some groups faced to be included in the previous classification. We anticipate that changes reflected in the draft iwi standard, such as adopting a more inclusive approach for including groups in the classification, will provide a smoother process for some groups.

Operational issues

Submitters raised operational issues. Using alphabetised lists in surveys was criticised, as this might result in people ticking the first group on the list they identify with.

“People tick [iwi name] instead of [iwi name] because [the] questionnaire was alphabetised.”

Transparency

There was a comment about transparency, and although this did not emerge as a specific theme in the submissions it has been an ongoing theme throughout the iwi review.

“Make it transparent.”

Such comments highlight the need to maintain open and transparent processes, particularly around the decisions made to include groups in the classification.

Recommendations for finalising the standard

The feedback we received on the draft iwi statistical standard we consulted on provides constructive insights and perspectives. Taken as a whole, the feedback was positive and suggests we need few changes to finalise the standard. A minority of submitters offered suggestions to improve the standard, but we needed to balance the implications of these suggestions against the positive feedback received.

After carefully considering and discussing submission feedback on the draft standard, Stats NZ and the advisory group of Māori and government agency members made two recommendations for finalising the standard.

Recommendation 1:
The draft iwi statistical standard consulted on requires minimal changes to wording. Retain the concept, definition, and conditions for inclusion presented in the draft iwi statistical standard.

Recommendation 2:
Improve clarity where required; for example, include rōpū whakahaere in glossary.

Recommendations for future work

While some feedback from submissions was beyond the scope of the standard, it was worth taking into account. As such, we make several recommendations for future work.

Recommendation 3:
Develop a document to accompany the iwi standard for people who require information that is more technical.

Recommendation 4:
Continue to explore new ways for making iwi and Māori information more accessible.

Recommendation 5:
Investigate options for collecting information about marae, hapū, and non-kinship groups.

Next steps

The recommendations will help us to finalise the iwi statistical standard. We aim to publish this final standard on the Stats NZ website in September 2017. We expect the final standard will mean more meaningful information becomes available for and about iwi and iwi-related groups.

Glossary

hapū
Clusters of whānau (families) where the whānau is usually an extended family grouping consisting of children, parents, often grandparents, and other closely related kin.

iwi-related groups
Kinship groupings with a shared Māori descent line, such as a waka grouping or confederation.

marae
A traditional meeting place for whānau, hapū, and iwi members (Abridged from: Te Kāhui Māngai).

non-kinship Māori group
Non-kinship Māori groupings connect people of Māori descent, but are not bound by ancestral lineage. Non-kinship Māori groupings are typically locality-based.

rōpū whakahaere
Management group, organisational committee (Source: Māori dictionary).

tipuna
Ancestor, grandparent, grandfather, grandmother (Source: Māori dictionary).

urban marae
Non-traditional marae, not specifically associated with any particular hapū. Urban marae often serve as meeting places for the wider community and are also commonly called community, ngā hau e whā, ngā mātā waka, or pan-tribal marae (Abridged from: Te Kāhui Māngai).

whānau
A family or extended family (Source: Te Kāhui Māngai).

Further reading

The publications below provide background information about the review of the iwi statistical standard.

Stats NZ (2016). How should iwi and Māori identity groups be measured across government? A consultation paper. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

Stats NZ (2017). Summary of the iwi statistical standard review. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

Stats NZ (2017). Iwi statistical standard 2017 review: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

References

Moorfield, J (nd). Māori dictionary. Retrieved from http://Māoridictionary.co.nz.

Stats NZ (2015). Crown–Māori engagement and statistical information needs. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

Stats NZ (2016a). New Zealand literature review of Māori groupings. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

Stats NZ (2016b). Discussion of findings from the 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

Stats NZ (2016c). Recommendations from the 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

Stats NZ (2017). Review of the statistical standard for iwi: Summary of key points. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.

Te Puni Kōkiri (nd). Te Kāhui Māngai: Directory of iwi and Māori organisations. Retrieved from www.tkm.govt.nz.

Appendix 1: Submission questions

The online and PDF submission forms had four open-ended questions:

Q1. Do you have feedback on the concept, definition, or conditions for inclusion?

Q2. Do you have feedback on the information on how to collect, classify, or report iwi data?

Q3. Do you have any other feedback?

Q4. Do you have any questions about the iwi statistical standard or the review process?

Appendix 2: Concept, definition, and conditions for inclusion in the draft iwi statistical standard

The concept, definition, and conditions for inclusion in the draft iwi statistical standard are outlined here.

Concept of iwi

An iwi, or Māori tribe, is one of the largest kinship groupings and is generally made up of several hapū that are all descended from a common ancestor. Hapū are clusters of whānau where the whānau is usually an extended family grouping consisting of children, parents, often grandparents, and other closely related kin.

Definition of iwi

For statistical purposes, an iwi is defined as a whakapapa-based kinship grouping that generally has several hapū and one or more active marae, and a recognised structure that represents the interests of the iwi, such as a rōpū whakahaere, committee, or board.

Conditions for inclusion in the classification

To be included in the iwi classification, groups must be whakapapa-based kinship groupings. Groups should be existing hapū becoming iwi, a collection of hapū, or an iwi-related group.

Groups listed as an iwi, in recognised iwi lists such as Te Kāhui Māngai, Tūhono, or the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, will be included in the iwi classification. In the future, iwi listed in other national and local government agencies’ iwi lists may also be included. These iwi lists will need to be whakapapa-based kinship groupings, and will have undergone an appropriate process for determining which groups to include.

Kinship groups that are not listed as an iwi in recognised iwi lists are encouraged to provide information for the group to consider them for inclusion.

This includes information about whether a group has: 

  • a shared Māori descent line and its own traditions 
  • one or more active marae – these do not need to be physical buildings 
  • a recognised structure that represents the interests of the iwi, such as a rōpū whakahaere, committee, or board.

In collaboration with other government agencies and in partnership with Māori, Stats NZ will consider the information a group provides for inclusion.

Citation

Stats NZ (2017). Recommendations from consulting on the draft iwi statistical standard. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
ISBN 978-1-98-852826-7 (online)

Published 22 August 2017 

 

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