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Classification and coding process

Classification criteria

Usual residence n years ago

Please note: n = number.

The criterion used to place a person into the classification for usual residence n years ago is the address information (street number, name, and type; suburb or rural locality; and city, town or district) as stated by a respondent who usually resided in New Zealand n years ago. For people who usually resided overseas n years ago, the criterion is the country stated by the respondent.

The classification for usual residence n years ago uses area units as the smallest spatial unit. This is because a significant number of respondents do not supply enough information to enable an address to be accurately coded to meshblock level.

Usual residence n years ago indicator

The criterion used to place a person into the classification for usual residence n years ago indicator is the relationship between a respondent’s usual residence n years ago, and their usual residence on the date that the data is collected.

Classification

Usual residence n years ago

The usual residence n years ago classification consists of a combination of classifications that are ordinarily stored independently of each other. There is a hierarchic relationship between the New Zealand geographic classifications of area unit, territorial authority and regional council. For example, area units aggregate to form both territorial authorities and regional councils. The categories of each of these ordinarily independent classifications sit alongside each other at the same level of this classification. The country classification also sits alongside the New Zealand geographic classifications, in the same level of the usual residence n years ago classification.

Usual residence n years ago is therefore a flat classification. The standard codes are:

  • Area unit codes (6 digits)
  • Territorial authority codes (3 digits) prefixed by ‘999’
  • Regional council codes (2 digits) prefixed by ‘9999’
  • Country codes (4 digits) prefixed by ‘99’
  • 999944 Don't know
  • 999955 Refused to answer
  • 999977 Response unidentifiable
  • 999988 Response outside scope
  • 999995 Not born n years ago
  • 999996 No fixed abode n years ago
  • 999997 Country not stated
  • 999998 New Zealand not further defined
  • 999999 Not stated

Leading ‘9’s are used to create six digit codes. Codes are available for addresses for which insufficient information is provided to allocate an area unit but enough information is provided for another area type (territorial authority or regional council) to be specified.

‘999996 No fixed abode n years ago’ is a category for respondents who indicate that they had no usual residence n years ago.

'999997 Country not stated' is a category for respondents who indicate that they usually resided overseas n years ago but do not specify which country

‘999998 New Zealand not further defined’ is a category for respondents who provided insufficient information for an area unit, territorial authority or regional council to be allocated, and for non-respondents for whom there is no information to indicate they usually resided overseas n years ago.

The standard area unit, territorial authority, and regional council classifications that are current at the commencement of the survey cycle should be used.

Usual residence n years ago indicator

The classification of usual residence n years ago indicator is a flat classification with five categories plus six residual categories:

  • 01 Same as usual residence n years ago
  • 02 Elsewhere in New Zealand n years ago
  • 03 Not born n years ago
  • 04 Overseas n years ago
  • 05 No fixed abode n years ago
  • 44 Don't know
  • 55 Refused to answer
  • 77 Response unidentifiable
  • 88 Response outside scope
  • 98 New Zealand not further defined
  • 99 Not stated

'98 New Zealand not further defined' is a category for respondents who indicate that their usual residence n years ago was in New Zealand but do not provide enough information to ascertain that it is the same as their usual residence on the date the data is collected or whether it was elsewhere. ‘04 No fixed abode’ is a category for respondents who indicate that they had no usual residence n years ago.

The full classification is available in Download of classification.

Coding process

Usual residence n years ago

Usual residence n years ago will require coding for responses both within New Zealand and overseas.

If the respondent states that their usual residence n years ago was ‘in New Zealand at another address’, then the address given should be coded using the New Zealand geographic codefile. A codefile is a comprehensive list of probable survey responses and the classification categories to which they are coded.

The codefile contains street names and numbers, address aliases (an alternative name for an address, such as a building or institution name) and geographic features. This codefile relates street attributes to area units. The street data (stored in the Geographic Frame) is continually updated from information received from Land Information New Zealand, the Electoral Enrolment Centre and local authorities. The address alias data is updated from directories such as the Cityscope, UBD, and Wises publications.

If there is insufficient information to code an address to the area unit level, the response should be coded to territorial authority level if possible. If there is insufficient information to code an address to area unit or territorial authority level, the response should be coded to regional council level if possible. If there is insufficient information to code an address to the area unit, territorial authority or regional council level then usual residence n years ago should be coded to ‘999998 New Zealand not further defined’.

Respondents who have indicated that they had no usual residence n years ago should be coded to ‘999996 No fixed abode n years ago’.

A non-respondent for whom there is no information to indicate that they usually resided overseas n years ago, should be coded to ‘999998 New Zealand not further defined’, unless their reported or imputed age is less than n years. If the non-respondents' age is less than n years, usual residence n years ago should be coded to ‘999995 Not born n years ago’.

If the respondent states that their usual residence n years ago was ‘not living in New Zealand’, then the country given should be coded using the country codefile. This contains, in addition to country titles, regions and provinces where appropriate. The country codefile is updated with responses that occur in departmental surveys.

Respondents who indicate that their usual residence n years ago was overseas, but do not specify the name of the country, should be coded to ‘999997 Country not stated’, unless their reported or imputed age is less than n years. If the respondent's age is less than n years, usual residence n years ago should be coded to ‘999995 not born n years ago’.

In cases where none of the above options have been selected, a decision needs to be made as to whether the respondent lived in New Zealand or overseas n years ago. Responses to year of arrival should be checked. If there is no information to indicate overseas residence then the respondent should be coded to ‘999998 New Zealand not further defined’. If there is information to suggest that the respondent lived overseas n years ago then they should be coded to ‘999997 Country not stated’.

Multiple responses

If a respondent has selected ‘not born n years ago’ and another option, then age should be checked. If age is less than n years then the former response should be used, but if not, the latter response should be used.

If a respondent has selected ‘at the address given in the usual residence question’ and ‘living in New Zealand at another address’ then:

1. If an address is given then this should be compared with the address given for usual residence.

a) If the addresses match then ‘at the address given in the usual residence question’ should be used.

b) If the addresses do not match then ‘living in New Zealand at another address’ should be used.

2. If no address is given then ‘at the address given in the usual residence question’ should be used.

For other multiple responses the top response should be used.

Usual residence n years ago indicator

The usual residence n years ago indicator is derived from usual residence and usual residence n years ago.

Imputation

Imputation is generally not recommended as the variables are not critical ones.

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