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Glossary and references

Glossary

Child in a family nucleus

To be a ‘child in a family nucleus’, a person must have usual residence with at least one parent, and have no partner or child(ren) of their own living in the same household. Note that ‘child(ren) in a family nucleus’ can be a person of any age.

Civil union

A civil union is a legally registered relationship, which is entered into by two people of the same or opposite-sex who must have entered into the civil union according to the laws and customs of the country in which they entered into the civil union. A civil union also includes those opposite-sex couples that have changed their relationship from a marriage to a civil union in New Zealand.

De facto relationship

Two people who usually reside together as a couple in a relationship in the nature of marriage or civil union and who are not married to, or in a civil union with, each other. Note that couples in de facto relationships where one partner is temporarily living elsewhere at the time of the data collection (due to, for example, work or medical reasons) and the intention is to resume residing together, are still considered to be in a de facto relationship.

Dwelling

Any building or structure, or part thereof, that is used (or intended to be used) for the purpose of human habitation. It can be of a permanent or temporary nature and includes structures such as motels, hotels, prisons, motor homes, huts, and tents. At the highest level, dwellings are classified as private or non–private. A private dwelling accommodates a person or a group of people, but is not available to the public.

A private dwelling may be permanent or temporary. Permanent private dwellings include houses and flats, residences attached to a business or institution, baches, cribs and huts. Caravans, cabins, tents and other makeshift dwellings that are the principal or usual residence of households are classified as temporary private dwellings. All other dwellings used for human habitation (or intended to be used), are non–private and are available to the public. They may be available for use generally, or by virtue of occupation or study, special needs, or legal requirements, for example prisons. Such dwellings may have facilities (such as a dining room) that are for shared use.

Family nucleus

A couple, with or without child(ren), or one parent and their child(ren), all of whom have usual residence together in the same household. The child(ren) do not have partners or child(ren) of their own living in the same household.

Familial relationship

A relationship in which a person is related to another person by birth/biology, or by registered marriage or civil union, de facto union, fostering or adoption.

Grandchild

The child of a person's child.

Grandparent

The parent of a person's father or mother.

Household

One person who usually resides alone or two or more people who usually reside together and share facilities (such as eating facilities, cooking facilities, bathroom and toilet facilities, a living area).

Living arrangements

A person's relationships (familial and non-familial) to all of the people with whom they usually reside in a private dwelling.

The Living arrangements concept differs from relationship in that living arrangements collects information about the type of relationships people have with all the people with whom they usually reside or live with, but not who the relationship is with. For example, in a household with an adult and two children, a response to a simple living arrangements question 'Who do you usually live with?' can be 'I live with my child and other unrelated person'. This does not identify which of the two children is the child of the respondent.

Relationship variable, on the other hand, collects information on the specific relationship(s) of each person in a defined group to one person (reference person) or to all persons in that group in the private dwelling. For the above example, with relationship, the survey can identify that person 2 is the child of the respondent person 1, or person 3 is unrelated to person 1.

Relationship identifies and classifies the key relationships between persons in the same private dwelling and may include visitors in the private dwelling at the time of the survey. The living arrangements information may help to further identify relationship information for people who are in complex families and households where the relationship matrix is not used.

Non-familial relationship

A relationship in which a person is not related to another person by birth/biology, or by registered marriage or civil union, de facto union, fostering or adoption.

Parent

The mother, father (birth/biological, adopted or step), or ‘person in a parent role’ of a ‘child in a family nucleus’. A ‘person in a parent role’ is a person who is not a mother or father (birth/biological, adopted or step) of the child (as defined by the survey) but who nevertheless usually resides with that child. The child does not have a partner or child of their own and does not usually reside with their mother or father. Ideally, a person in a parent role can be considered a parent according to current social norms regarding parenting. The specific criteria as to who is included or excluded from being a ‘person in a parent role’ should be defined by the survey.

Partner

A person with whom another person is:

  • married to or in a civil union with, or
  • in a de facto relationship with.

Civil unions and de facto relationships include both same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples.

Reference person

The one person whose relationship(s) to all the other people in a group of people is collected.

Related people

People who have a familial relationship. A familial relationship is the relationship between people who are related to one another by birth/biologically, or by registered marriage, civil union, de facto union, fostering or adoption.

Relationship between members in a private dwelling

Relationship is a variable that collects the familial and non-familial relationships of each person:

  • to every other person, in a defined group of people, in a private dwelling (relationship matrix) or
  • in a defined group of people to one person in a private dwelling (the reference person).

It identifies and classifies the key relationships between persons in a private dwelling and may include visitors in a private dwelling at the time of the survey.

Unrelated people

People who have a non-familial relationship. A non-familial Relationship is the relationship between people who are not related to one another by birth/biologically, or by registered marriage, civil union, de facto union, fostering or adoption.

Usual residence

Usual residence is the address of the dwelling where a person considers himself or herself to usually reside, except in the specific cases listed below.

  • People who board at another residence to attend primary or secondary school, and return to their parent’s(s’) or guardian’s(s’) home for the holidays; usually reside at the address of their parent(s) or guardian(s). Post–secondary students usually reside at the address where they live while studying.
  • Children in joint custody usually reside at the place where they spend more nights, or if they spend equal amounts of time at each residence, they usually reside at the place where they are at the time of the survey.
  • People, who are in rest homes, hospitals, prisons or other institutions, usually reside where they consider themselves to live, and this may include the institution.
  • A person whose home is on any ship, boat or vessel permanently located in any harbour shall be deemed to usually reside at the wharf or landing place (or main wharf or landing place) of the harbour.
  • A person from another country who has lived, or intends to live, in New Zealand for 12 months or more usually resides at his or her address in New Zealand (as in external migration).
  • People of no fixed abode have no usual residence.
  • People who spend equal amounts of time residing at different addresses, and cannot decide which address is their usual residence, usually reside at the address they were surveyed at.
  • If none of the above guidelines apply, the person usually resides at the address he or she was surveyed at.

Visitor

A person who is present in a dwelling at the time of the survey but does not usually reside in that dwelling.

Residual categories

Don’t know

Use of this category is discretionary. The use of a category capturing don't know responses is most applicable to household surveys where don't know may be a legitimate response to certain questions.

Refused to answer

This category is only used when it is known that the respondent has purposefully chosen not to respond to the question. Use of this residual category in processing is optional. Its use is most applicable in face–to–face or telephone interviews, but may be used in self–completed questionnaires if the respondent has clearly indicated they refuse or object to answering the question.

Response unidentifiable

This category is used when there is a response given, but:

  1. the response is illegible
  2. it is unclear what the meaning or intent of the response is – this most commonly occurs when the response being classified contains insufficient detail, is ambiguous or is vague
  3. the response is contradictory e.g., both the yes and no tick boxes have been ticked
  4. the response is clear and seemingly within the scope of the classification but can not be coded because no suitable option (particularly other residual category options such as 'not elsewhere classified' or 'not further defined') exists in the classification or codefile.
Response outside scope

This category is used for responses that are positively identified (the meaning and the intent are clear) but which clearly fall outside the scope of the classification/topic as defined in the standard.

Not elsewhere classified

This is a residual category used for responses for which no appropriate category exists. Such responses are usually infrequent or unanticipated.

Not further defined

This is used in hierarchical classifications for responses containing insufficient detail to be classified to the most detailed level of a classification, but which can be classified to a less detailed category further up the hierarchy.

Not stated

This category is only used where a respondent has not given any response to the question asked, it is solely for non–response.

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2005). "1286.0 - Family, Household and Income Unit Variables, 2005, Relationship in Household", www.abs.gov.au

Office of National Statistics (2008). "Harmonised Concepts and Questions for Social Data Sources, Primary Standards, Demographic information, household composition and relationships, www.ons.gov.uk

Statistics Canada (2007). "Census Family Status", www.statscan.ca

Statistics Canada (2007). "Economic Family Status", www.statscan.ca

Statistics Canada (2007). "Relationship Between Household Members", www.statscan.ca

Statistics New Zealand (1999), "Relationship to reference person", www.stats.govt.nz.

Statistics New Zealand (2007). "Report of the Review of Official Family Statistics", Statistics New Zealand, Wellington.

United Nations (2008). "UNECE CES Recommendations for the 2010 censuses of population and housing", UN, New York and Geneva.

United Nations (2008). "Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses Revision 2", Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division, Statistical Papers, UN, NY (Series M No. 67/Rev. 2).

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