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Appendix 1

ICT definitions

Active subscriber

A connection that has accessed the Internet or paid for access to the Internet through this Internet Service Provider within the last 90 days (see ‘active connection’ below) Note: From 2013 we have used the term ‘connection’ in place of ‘subscriber’.

Active connection

A connection that has been used to connect to the Internet within the last 90 days.

Anti-spyware software

Programs to remove or block spyware. Spyware is software that helps to gather information about a person or organisation without their knowledge.

Anti-virus software

Programs to detect and remove computer viruses.

Botnets

Collection of compromised computers that, although their owners are unaware of it, have been set up to forward transmissions (including spam or viruses) to other computers on the Internet.

Broadband

A high-speed connection to the Internet also referred to as non-analogue. It can allow for multiple services to work at the same time, eg telephone, cable TV, and Internet access. Broadband is an ‘always on service and includes digital subscriber line (DSL), cable, fibre optic, satellite, cellular, and fixed wireless.

Cable

A broadband transmission technology using coaxial cable or fibre-optic TV cable lines to access the Internet.

Data cap

Method employed by ISPs to limit the volume of data downloaded and/or uploaded by subscribers during a fixed period, normally a month. Once subscribers reach the cap, lower speed or extra access charges may apply. Also referred to as a data allowance.

Data card

A removable computer component containing data used in conjunction with other ICT devices to provide mobile Internet access, also known as a smart card.

Dial-up

A way of connecting a computer to the Internet using a modem and the telephone line.

Dial-up connection

Connection to the Internet via a dial-up modem that uses the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Includes integrated services digital network (ISDN) and analogue connections.

Digital subscriber line (DSL)

A type of broadband that carries data at high speeds over traditional (copper) telephone lines. It is technology that allows high-speed transmission of data, audio, and video over standard telephone lines; a form of broadband transmission. This can include the following types: 

  • ADSL: asymmetric digital subscriber line is a type of DSL technology for transmitting digital information at a high bandwidth on existing copper telephone lines. It simultaneously accommodates analogue information on the same line so voice calls can be made while using the Internet. It is asymmetric in the sense that it uses most of the channel to transmit downstream to the user and only a small part to receive information from the user. 
  • ADSL2+: an extension to ADSL broadband technology that provides subscribers with significantly faster download speeds when compared with traditional ADSL connections. 
  • SHDSL: single-pair (symmetrical) high-speed DSL is a form of DSL designed to transport data across a single copper pair. SHDSL technology can transport data symmetrically so users can get the same rate of transmission for both upstream and downstream data. 
  • VDSL: very-high bit-rate DSL is the fastest available form of DSL. It is an improved version of ADSL which was developed to support the high bandwidth requirements of HDTV, media streaming, and VoIP connections.

Dongle

A device connected to a computer to allow access to wireless broadband or use of protected software.
Fibre: a cable to the home specifically for broadband Internet services. This is an optical fibre connection often referred to as ‘fibre-to-the-home’.

Firewall

An integrated collection of security measures designed to prevent unauthorised electronic access to a networked security system.

Gigabyte (GB)

A measure of the volume of data. Gigabyte represents a data unit of one billion bytes.

Global positioning system (GPS)

A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on Earth. It is used in navigation, and to determine geographical coordinates and local time.

Hotspot

A site that offers Internet access, typically using Wi-Fi technology. Hotspots may be found in coffee shops and various other public establishments and areas.

ICT commodities

Categories of goods and services used in the ICT Supply Survey questionnaire. ICT goods commodities are defined by the internationally recognised Harmonized System (HS).

Information and communication technology (ICT)

Electronic technologies used for collecting, processing, or transmitting information, which can be in the form of voice, images, or data. Examples of ICT include computers, the Internet, and telecommunications.

Internet

An international computer network linking computers from educational institutions, government agencies, industries, and individuals, etc.

Internet protocol (IP)

A system for assigning a unique identifier to all devices connected to the Internet. Each device is assigned, and can be identified by, a unique address. This address is made up of a series of numbers (similar to a phone number).

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)

The next generation Internet Protocol, which greatly expands the IP number space and is the approved standard to replace IPv4.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

Businesses that supply Internet connections to individuals, households, businesses, and other organisations.

Internet telephone, Skype, iTalk

Services that allow you to talk in real time over the Internet in a similar fashion to a phone call, often including a video component.

Mbps and kbps

Measures of download and upload speed. Mbps stands for megabits per second (1,000,000 bits per second) and kbps stands for kilobits per second (1,000 bits per second).

Mobile handset connection

Internet connection via a mobile phone. The connection is active if it was used to connect to the Internet within the last 90 days.

Mobile cellular phone

Also known as mobile phone, cell phone. A portable, wireless telephone that can be used at long ranges (not a cordless phone, which has a limited range).

Netbook

A small, low power, mobile personal computer, used primarily for email and Internet access.

Online purchase

A purchase paid for online, eg by credit card or web-based Internet transaction systems. This does not include online banking, or when the payment for a purchase is made by cash or cheque.

Patches

A piece of software designed to fix or update a computer programme and its supporting data.

Pharming

Hacker’s attack aiming to redirect a website’s traffic to another, bogus website. Pharming can be conducted either by changing the host’s file on a victim’s computer or by exploitation of a vulnerability in DNS server software.

Phishing

A way of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication, such as fraudulent emails.

Satellite broadband

A connection to the Internet using a satellite dish. Satellite broadband is linked to a dish network subscriber service and provides speeds similar to other broadband connections.

Sharing files via peer to peer exchanges

Directly accessing other computers’ files through Internet networks and certain software programs.

Tablet

A mobile computer integrated into a flat touch-screen and primarily operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard. Tablets are larger than a mobile phone.

Terabyte (TB)

Multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Terabyte represents a data unit of 1,024 gigabytes or 1 trillion bytes.

Theoretical maximum speed

Also referred to as the 'design speed'. The maximum possible upload and download speeds an ISP allows on a connection in ideal conditions.

Trojans

Software that appears to perform a desirable function for the user before running or installing, but (perhaps in addition to the expected function) steals information or harms the system.

USB modem

Universal serial bus modem. A small portable device that functions as a modem and plugs into a laptop or desktop computer allowing Internet connectivity.

Web radio and web television

Radio and television stations that can be accessed through the Internet, also called 'webcasting'.

Wi-Fi

A local area network that uses high frequency radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances up to approximately 100 metres.

Wireless

Access to the Internet via wireless networks (other than cellular technology).

Wireless network

A computer network with no physical connection such as cables between senders and receivers, instead using high-frequency radio to transmit data.

Wireless router

A device that allows Internet access to wireless-capable devices in the home, most often laptops, tablets, and smartphones. A wireless router is also known as a wireless modem.

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