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Standards and further information

Percentage changes

Percentage movements are, in a number of cases, calculated using data of greater precision than published. This could result in slight variations.

Rounding procedures

Figures may be rounded to the nearest thousand or some other convenient unit. This may result in a total disagreeing slightly with the total of the individual items. All counts in this report have been randomly rounded to base 3 to protect the confidentiality of respondents. For this reason not all figures will sum to stated totals.  

Changes of base

Where consecutive figures have been compiled on different bases and are not strictly comparable, a footnote is added indicating the nature of the difference. 

Time periods

Results for each indicator span the most recent 20-year period, although in many cases the period analysed is shorter. In some cases information has only been available for two discrete points in time (usually two distinct years), rather than a time series, and in yet others only for a single point in time (usually one year). In some other cases the time period is longer than 20 years because either underlying data cycles have been identified or longer time series are required to understand long-term changes. 


All data is compiled by Statistics NZ, except where otherwise stated. Both administrative and survey data has been used in this report. Information about the data and its source for a specific indicator can be found in the ‘About the indicator’ section at the end of each topic in part B.

The data that was used to produce the graphs in this report is available in Excel format at  


While all care and diligence has been used in processing, analysing, and extracting data and information in this report, Statistics NZ gives no warranty it is error free and will not be liable for any loss or damage suffered as a result of the use, directly or indirectly, of information in this report. 

Statistics New Zealand Information Centre

For further information on the statistics in this report, and for help finding and using statistical information available on our website, contact the Information Centre:


Phone toll-free: 0508 525 525

Phone international: +64 4 931 4600

Fax: +64 4 931 4610

Post: P O Box 2922, Wellington 6140, New Zealand


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