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Appendix 2: Objective and subjective measures contributing to overall life satisfaction

This chapter discusses the results of the two regression models used in calculating the determinants of life satisfaction.

Model 1 – Objective measures

Model (1) contributes only 7 percent of the variation in Māori life satisfaction (see table 3). It does not provide a complete picture of the relationship between life satisfaction and many other relevant well-being outcomes. We thought it would be appropriate to include a range of more subjective variables that are proxy of the other aspects of well-being, such as health status, social connections, civic engagement and governance, and personal security.

Model 2 – Objective and subjective measures

In model (2), we found objective variables that were no longer significant but were significant in model (1). These were household income, employment status, volunteer work, experienced crime, and contact with whānau. It is possible that these measures were somehow correlated to some subjective variables identified in model (2).

In contrast, sex, presence of children, and highest qualification – which were not significant in model (1) – became significantly associated with life satisfaction in model (2).

Age, urban area, and social marital status were consistently significant in contributing to overall life satisfaction. Female Māori are more likely to have higher life satisfaction than male Māori. Partnered Māori are more likely to have higher life satisfaction than non-partnered Māori. Life satisfaction is ‘U-shaped’ in age.

The subjective variables we found to be significantly contributing to the overall life satisfaction of Māori are adequacy of income; number of housing problems; health status; loneliness; trust in people; trust in courts; and importance of culture. However, we found that te reo speaking proficiency did not significantly contribute to overall life satisfaction. Model (2) considers both objective and subjective measures of well-being, which contributed 24 percent to Māori overall life satisfaction.

Table 3
Regression results: life satisfaction

 

 Outcome domain

Variable

 Model

(1)

(2)

 Pr>F

 Demographic characteristics  Male

 0.3096

 0.0001

 Age

 <0.0001

 <0.0001

 Age2

 <0.0001

 <0.0001

 With children

 0.0801

 0.0341

 Urban area

 0.0051

 0.0233

 Income and wealth  Log household income

 <0.0001

 0.3735

 Not enough money

 …

 <0.0001

 Jobs and earnings  Unemployment

 0.0004

 0.0800

 Housing conditions  Number of housing problems

 …

 <0.0001

 Health status  Health status

 …

 <0.0001

 Education and skills  Highest qualifications

 0.5790

 0.0034

 Social connections  Partnered

 <0.0001

 0.0001

 Loneliness

 …

 <0.0001

 Contact with whānau

 0.0347

 0.4011

 Volunteering

 0.0028

 0.1442

 Trust in people

 …

 <0.0001

 Civic engagement and governance  Trust in courts

 …

 <0.0001

 Personal security  Experienced crime

 <0.0001

 0.1209

 Cultural connections  Importance of culture

 …

 <0.0001

 Been to ancestral marae

 0.2277

 0.7113

 Te reo speaking proficiencyTe reo speaking proficiency

 …

 0.5064

   Observations

 5,549

 5,549

 Observations used

 4,225

 4,065

 r2

 0.0736

 0.2446

 Symbol: … Not applicable.
Source: Statistics New Zealand
 

  
  
 
  
 
   
 
  
  
 


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