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Appendix 1: Data and definitions

Data from Te Kupenga

The data for this report is sourced from Te Kupenga, a survey of Māori well-being. It includes measures based on the Māori perspective of cultural well-being, including wairuatanga (spirituality), tikanga (Māori customs and practices), whanaungatanga (social connectedness), and te reo Māori. The survey also contains general social and economic well-being measures, such as paid and unpaid work, civil participation, and self-assessed health status. These measures give an overall picture of the social, cultural, and economic well-being of Māori in New Zealand.

This survey collected well-being information from 5,549 Māori aged 15 and over between June and August 2013.

Te Kupenga Survey 2013 has more information.

Definitions

Here are the definitions of the main measures and terms used in this report.

Overall life satisfaction

Respondents were asked to rate their overall life satisfaction on an 11-point Likert scale, where zero is completely dissatisfied, and 10 is completely satisfied.

Sex

Respondents’ answer could either be male or female.

Age

Respondent’s age was included in the data analysis.

Household income

Respondents were asked of their household income. Their answer could be in one of the following:

  1. loss
  2. zero income
  3. $1–$5,000
  4. $5,001–$10,000
  5. $10,001–$15,000
  6. $15,001–$20,000
  7. $20,001–$25,000
  8. $25,001–$30,000
  9. $30,001–$35,000
  10. $35,001–$40,000
  11. $40,001–$50,000
  12. $50,001–$60,000
  13. $60,001–$70,000
  14. $70,001–$100,000
  15. $100,001–$150,000
  16. $150,001 or more.

Employment status

Respondents were asked for their employment status. Their answer could be any of the following categories:

  1. employed full time
  2. employed part time
  3. unemployed
  4. not in the labour force.

Highest qualification

Respondents were asked for their highest qualification. Their answer could be any of the following categories:

  1. no qualification
  2. level 1 certificate gained at school
  3. level 2 certificate gained at school
  4. level 3 or 4 certificate gained at school
  5. overseas secondary school qualification
  6. level 1 certificate gained post-school
  7. level 2 certificate gained post-school
  8. level 3 certificate gained post-school
  9. level 4 certificate gained post-school
  10. level 5 diploma
  11. level 6 diploma
  12. bachelor’s degree and level 7 qualifications
  13. postgraduate and honour degree
  14. master’s degree
  15. doctorate degree.

Social marital status

Respondents were asked about their social marital status. Their answer could be in one of the following categories:

  1. partnered, nfd (not further defined)
  2. spouse
  3. civil union partner
  4. de facto partner
  5. non-partnered, nfd
  6. non-partnered, separated (marriage or civil union)
  7. non-partnered, divorced, or dissolved (marriage or civil union)
  8. non-partnered, widowed, or surviving civil union partner
  9. non-partnered, never married, and never in a civil union.

Contact with whānau

Respondents were asked if in the last four weeks, they have seen in person any of their whānau who do not live with them. Their answer could be in one of the following:

  1. yes
  2. no
  3. don’t have any whānau (that don’t live with them).

Volunteering

 

A derived variable on volunteering was generated through the responses on the following questions:

1. In the last four weeks, did they provide any help without pay for, or through, a marae, hāpu or iwi.
2. In the last four week, did they provide any help without pay for, or through, a school, church, sports club, or other group or organisation.

If the response in one of the two questions was yes, then volunteering is yes. If the answers to both questions were no, then volunteering is no.

Crime in the last 12 months

Respondents were asked if any crimes have been committed against them. Their answer could be either yes or no.

Been to ancestral marae

Respondents were asked if they have been to any of their ancestral marae. Their answer could be either yes or no.

Te reo speaking proficiency

Respondents were asked how well they are able to speak Māori in day-to-day conversation. Their answer could be any of the following:

  1. very well (I can talk about almost anything in Māori)
  2. well (I can talk about many things in Māori)
  3. fairly well (I can talk about some of the things in Māori)
  4. not very well (I can only talk about simple/basic things in Māori
  5. no more than a few words or phrases.

Adequacy of income

Respondents were asked how well do their total income (or theirs and their partner’s income combined) meet their everyday needs for such things as accommodation, food, clothing, and other necessities. Their answer could be in one of the following categories:

  1. not enough
  2. only just enough
  3. enough
  4. more than enough.

Housing problems

Respondents were asked if the following:

  1. repairs
  2. pests
  3. small
  4. damp
  5. cold

were problems they have in their house or flat. Their answer to each of the housing problems could be in one of the following categories:

  1. not a problem
  2. a small problem
  3. a big problem.

Self-assessed health status

Respondents were asked in general, how they would assess their health status. Their answer could be any of the following categories:

  1. excellent
  2. very good
  3. good
  4. fair
  5. poor.

Loneliness

Respondents were asked how much of the time would they say they have felt lonely in the last four weeks. Their answer could be in one of the following categories:

  1. all of the time
  2. most of the time
  3. some of the time
  4. a little of the time
  5. none of the time.

Trust in others

Respondents were asked using an 11-point Likert scale how much of the time they thought most of the people in New Zealand can be trusted, where zero is people can never be trusted, and 10 is people can always be trusted.

Trust in public institutions

Respondents were asked how much they trust the following institutions/systems in treating people fairly:

  1. system of government
  2. courts.

Their answer for each institution/system above could be between zero and 10, where zero is not at all trusted, and ten is completely trusted.

Importance of culture

Respondents were asked to think about their life as a whole and asked how important it is for them to be involved in things to do with Māori culture. Their answer could be in one of the following categories:

  1. very important
  2. quite important
  3. somewhat important
  4. a little important
  5. not at all important.

Have children

This is a derived variable that is generated from the household composition variable. The answer could be

1–if with child(ren)
0–if without child(ren).

Urban/rural

Below is the derived urban/rural classification used in this report:

1. Main urban area
2. Secondary urban area
3. Minor urban area
4. Rural.

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