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Technical information and limitations of estimates

Linked Employer-Employee Data

Linked Employer-Employee Data (LEED) Māori authority estimates have the following limitations. 

  • Filled jobs are the number of jobs on the 15th of the middle month of the reference quarter, where the job relates to a person 15 years of age or over. 
  • Businesses currently identified as a Māori authority are assumed to have always been a Māori authority.
  • Information below ‘total all industry’ level results are not published for some industries, due to confidentiality.
  • Information below ‘total all region’ level results in many regions in the South Island not being published, due to confidentiality. This paper combines the South Island regions into one combined South Island group.

Annual Enterprise Survey

The Annual Enterprise Survey (AES) is New Zealand's most comprehensive source of financial statistics. It provides annual financial performance and financial position information about businesses operating within New Zealand. The AES is estimated to cover approximately 90 percent of New Zealand's gross domestic product.

We collect data used in the AES from a number of sources, including:

  • a sample survey of business financial data
  • business financial data from Inland Revenue (IR10)
  • not-for-profit data from the Charities Commission
  • central government data from the Treasury's Crown Financial Information System
  • local government data from Statistics NZ's local authority statistics

The first three are the main sources of Māori authority information.

The following ANZSIC06 (Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006) industries are excluded from AES on pragmatic grounds:

  • residential property operators (L671100)
  • foreign government representation (O755200)
  • religious services (S954000)
  • private households employing staff and undifferentiated goods- and service-producing activities of households for own use (S960100-300).

In AES 2013, the sample included increased coverage of Māori authority units. As a result of this increase, we can produce new financial information for three industry groups:

  • agriculture, forestry and fishing
  • manufacturing
  • rental, leasing, and real estate services.

Overseas merchandise trade

We obtain overseas merchandise trade (OMT) data from export and import entry documents lodged with the New Zealand Customs Service (NZCS). The data is processed and passed to Statistics NZ for further editing and compilation.

See Overseas Merchandise Trade: March 2015 – data quality for further information.

We compile Māori authority statistics using NZCS client numbers matched from our enterprise numbers via IRD numbers. Confidentially is applied at the group top enterprise level (the collection of related enterprises). Any codes missing from these matches reduce the level of coverage in OMT statistics.

Business Operations Survey

The Business Operations Survey (BOS) is a sample survey that collects information on business practices, including employment characteristics and business performance indicators. It is designed to produce national estimates at an industry and employee size level, with an annual sample of around 8,000 commercial businesses, all with six employees or more. Not-for-profit organisations, and businesses with five employees or fewer, are outside BOS’s scope.

These criteria result in there being few businesses related to Māori authorities in the BOS population. The results we publish from BOS data in this report were not weighted to represent the underlying population. Counts from the survey were randomly rounded to base 3 to protect confidentiality, so actual figures may differ from those stated.

Research and Development Survey

The Research and Development (R&D) Survey provides information on R&D in New Zealand, including the levels of R&D activity, employment, and expenditure by private sector enterprises, government departments, government-owned trading entities, and universities. The survey targets all economically significant enterprises that are pre-identified as performing or funding R&D activities in New Zealand. This group has a small overlap with identified Māori authorities. Due to the small number of businesses in this group, customers should treat the results with additional caution.

Contribution of Māori through wages they are paid

The contributions of Māori employees through wages they are paid were calculated based on shares of expenditure on salaries and wages paid by employers.

The main data sources we used were:

  • 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings – information on the relative importance of the occupations of Māori paid employees, within each sector of ownership by industry group, and information on personal income
  • Quarterly Employment Survey – figures for the year to June 2014 on the relationship between full- and part-time paid employees; and June 2014 quarter figures on average earnings per full-time equivalent (FTE) job, and relationship between ordinary time earnings and overtime earnings
  • Linked employer-employee database – figures for the year to June 2013 on the number of jobs filled by under-15-year-olds
  • Business Register – 2014 information on the relative importance of industry groups within each sector of ownership
  • Labour Cost Survey – pay rates for the June 2014 quarter
  • 2013 NZ Income Survey – salary and wage information
  • 2013 Household Economic Survey – salary and wage information.

Using data from a wide range of sources helps overcome the limitations of each individual data source.

We defined Māori employees based on their ethnicity in the 2013 Census. Those who identified themselves as Māori only, or Māori and at least one other ethnic group, were considered Māori.

Agricultural Production Survey

Currently the Agricultural Production Survey (APS) uses the Federation of Māori Authorities (FOMA) as a business frame from which to select samples. This differs from the Māori business indicator in our Business Register, which we used to identify Māori authorities for this report.

There are a few distinct differences between the two selection methods. The most-significant are that FOMA is self-selecting, and has a cost associated with affiliation. The method we used to identify Māori authorities for Tatauranga Umanga Māori does not have either limitation (see chapter 7 for more information).

While there are common units between these two sources, the frames are different. Tatauranga Umanga Māori contains nearly three times as many agricultural geographic units as FOMA does. Given the small size of the FOMA population relative to the total APS population, we are unable to provide production statistics for the Māori agricultural community – but the FOMA statistics do provide a record of agricultural production for the FOMA community.

For these reasons we do not include the FOMA tables in this report.

See Agricultural Production Statistics: June 2014 (final) for the FOMA tables.

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