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As we transition to our new site, you'll still find some Stats NZ information here on this archive site.

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Allan, C, & Kerr, S (2016). Who’s Going Green? Decomposing the Change in Household Consumption Emissions 2006–2012 (Motu Working paper 16–20). Retrieved from

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013). Household Energy Consumption Survey, Australia: Summary of Results, 2012. Retrieved from 

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012). 4102.0 – Australian Social Trends, Sep 2012: Household energy use and costs. Retrieved from

Azpitarte, F, Johnson, V, & Sullivan, D (2015).Fuel poverty, household income and energy spending: An empirical analysis for Australia using HILDA data. Fitzroy, Victoria: Brotherhood of St Laurence. Retrieved from

Bierre, S, Howden-Chapman, P, Signal, L, & Cunningham, C (2007). Institutional challenges in addressing healthy low-cost housing for all: learning from past policy. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand: 42–48. Retrieved from

Boardman, B (1991). Fuel poverty: from cold homes to affordable warmth. London: Belhaven Press.

Boardman, B (2010). Fixing Fuel Poverty: Challenges and Solutions. London: Earthscan.

Boston, J, & Chapple, S (2014). Child Poverty in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Bridget Williams Books.

BRANZ (2012). BRANZ 2010 House Condition Survey – Condition comparison by tenure. Retrieved from

Burke, T, & Ralston, L (nd). RP3001: Household energy use: Consumption and expenditure patterns 1993–2012. Retrieved from

Canterbury District Health Board (2015). Unflued Gas Heaters: Position statement and background paper for the Canterbury District Health Board. Retrieved from

Consumer New Zealand (2013). Electricity disconnections. Retrieved on 6 March 2017 from

Consumer New Zealand (2014). Portable LPG appliances. Retrieved on 6 March 2017 from

Crothers, C, Woodley, A, & Davies, T (2007). Utilisation of official statistics in the Auckland region. Official Statistics Research Series, 2. Retrieved from

Davie, GS, Baker MG, Hales S, & Carlin, JB (2007). Trends and determinants of excess winter in New Zealand: 1980 to 2000. BMC Public Health 2007; 7:263. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-263

Department of Energy and Climate Change (2015). Annual fuel poverty statistics report: 2015. Retrieved on 12 April 2017 from

Duncanson, M, Ormsby, C, Reid, P, Langley, J, & Woodward, A (2001). Fire incidents resulting in deaths of New Zealanders aged 15–64 years 1991–1997. New Zealand Fire Service Commission Research Report Number 31.

Electricity Authority (2016). Disconnections for non-payment: January 2006 – June 2016, Information paper. Retrieved on 6 March 2017 from

French, LJ, Camilleri, MJT, Isaacs, NP, & Pollard, AR (2006). Winter Temperatures in New Zealand Houses, Conference paper No 123. Retrieved on 8 February 2017 from

Grayson Heffner, Nina Campbell (2011). Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes. Retrieved on 2 June 2017 from

Hales, S, Blakely, T, Foster, RH, Baker, MG, & Howden-Chapman, P (2012). Seasonal patterns of mortality in relation to social factors. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(4). DOI: 10.1136/jech.2010.111864.

Healy, JD (2004). Housing, Fuel Poverty and Health: A Pan-European Analysis. England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

Hills, J (2012). Getting the measure of fuel poverty: final report of the Fuel Poverty Review. CASEreport, 72. London: Centre for the Analysis of Social exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from

Howden-Chapman, P, & Wilson, N (1999). Chapter 7: Housing and Health. In P Howden-Chapman & M Tobias (Eds), Social inequalities in Health: New Zealand 1999. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Retrieved from

Howden-Chapman, P et al (2008). Effects of improved home heating on asthma in community-dwelling children: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008; 337:a1411. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.a1411.

Howden-Chapman, P, Viggers, H, Chapman, R, O’Dea, D, Free S, & O’Sullivan, K (2009). Warm homes: Drivers of the demand for heating in the residential sector in New Zealand. Energy Policy 37/9, 3387-3399. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2008.12.023.

Howden-Chapman, P, Viggers, H, Chapman, R, O’Sullivan, K, Telfar Barnard, L, Lloyd, B (2012). Tackling cold housing and fuel poverty in New Zealand: A review of policies, research, and health impacts. Energy Policy 49, 134–142. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.09.044

Isaacs, NP (1998). Poverty and Comfort? Conference paper No 59, presented at the Fourth National Food Bank Conference, Wellington: BRANZ.

Lawson, R, & Williams, J (nd). The Nature of Fuel Poverty in New Zealand. University of Otago. Retrieved from

Lawson, R, Williams, J, & Wooliscroft, B (2015). Contrasting approaches to fuel poverty in New Zealand. Energy Policy 81, 38–42.

Lloyd, B (2006). Fuel poverty in New Zealand. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 27.

McChesney, I, Smith, N, & Baines, J (2006). The Impact on Housing Energy Efficiency of Market Prices, Incentives and Regulatory Requirements. Prepared by Taylor Baines and Associates for CHRANZ.

Middlemass, L, & Gillard, R (2015). Fuel poverty from the bottom-up: Characterising household energy vulnerability through the lived experience of the fuel poor. Energy Research & Social Science. Volume 6, March 2015, 146–154. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2015.02.001.

Moore, R (2012). Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy. Energy Policy (2012). Retrieved from

Ormandy, D, & Ezratty, V (2012). Health and thermal comfort: From WHO guidance to housing strategies. Energy Policy 49, 116–21.

O’Sullivan, K, Viggers, H, & Howden-Chapman, P (2014). The influence of electricity prepayment meter use on household energy behaviour. Sustainable Cities and Society, 13, 182–191.

O’Sullivan, K, Stanley, J, Fougere, G, & Howden-Chapman, P (2016). Heating practices and self-disconnection among electricity prepayment meter consumers in New Zealand: A follow-up survey. Utilities Policy 41, 139–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.jup.2016.07.002.

O’Sullivan, K, Telfar Barnard, L, Viggers, H, & Howden-Chapman, P (2016). Child and youth fuel poverty: assessing the known and unknown. People, Place and Policy, 10(1), 77–87.

O’Sullivan, K, Howden-Chapman, P, Sim, D, Stanley, J, Rowan, R, Clark, IKH, Morrison, LLA, the Waiopehu College 2015 Research team (2017). Cool? Young people investigate living in cold housing and fuel poverty. A mixed methods action research study. SSM – Population Health, 3, 66–74. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.12.006.

Perry, B (2015). Household incomes in New Zealand: Trends in indicators of inequality and hardship 1982 to 2014. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development. Retrieved from

Productivity Commission (2012). Housing affordability – final report. Retrieved from

Rashbrooke, M (ed 2013). Inequality: A New Zealand Crisis. Wellington, New Zealand: Bridget Williams Books.

Statistics New Zealand (2015). Perceptions of housing quality in 2014/15. Retrieved on 28 October 2016 from

Statistics New Zealand (2013). Perceptions of housing quality in 2010/11: Exploratory findings from the New Zealand General Social Survey. Retrieved on 28 October 2016 from

White V, & Jones M (2017). Warm, dry, healthy? Insights from the 2015 House Condition Survey on insulation, ventilation, heating and mould in New Zealand houses. BRANZ study report 372. Retrieved on 28 June 2017 from

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